Democratic societies from the earliest times have expected their governments to protect the weak against the strong. No ‘era of good feeling’ can justify discharging the police force or giving up the idea of public control over concentrated private wealth. On the other hand, it is obvious that a spirit of self-denial and moderation on the part of those who hold economic power will greatly soften the demand for absolute equality. Men are more interested in freedom and security then in an equal distribution of wealth. The extent to which Government must interfere with business, therefore, is not exactly measured by the extent to which economic power is concentrated into a few hands. The required degree of government interference depends mainly on whether economic powers are oppressively used, and on the necessity of keeping economic factors in a tolerable state of balance. But with the necessity of meeting all these dangers and threats to liberty, the powers of government are unavoidably increased, whic hever political party may be in office. The gro wth of government is a necessary result of the growth of technology and of the problems that go with the use of machines and science. Sin ce the government in our nation, must take on more powers to meet its problems, there is no way to preserve freedom except by making democracy more powerful.

1. The advent of science and technology has increased with
a. freedom of people
b. tyranny of the political parties
c. powers of the government
d. None of these

2. A spirit of moderation on the economically sound people would make the less privileged 
a. unhappy with the rich people
b. more interested in freedom and security
c. unhappy with their lot
d. clamour less for absolute equality

3.The growth of government is necessitated to
a. make the rich and the poor happy
b. curb the accumulation of wealth in a few hands
c. monitor science and technology
d. deploy the police force wisely

4. ‘Era of good feeling’ in sentence 2 refers to
a. time of prosperity
b. time of adversity
c. time without government
d. time of police atrocities

5. “Tolerable state of balance” in the last sentence may mean
a. and adequate level of police force
b. a reasonable level of economic equality
c. a reasonable amount of government interference
d. None of these


Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the entire population of all age groups. While the traditional structure of education as a three layer hierarchy from the primary stage to the university represents the core, we should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions, workers need to rewind, or renew their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction, or improve their skills as much as any university professor. The retired and the aged have their needs as well. Educational planning, in their words, should take care of the needs of everyone. Our structures of education have been built up on the assumption that there is a terminal point to education. This basic defect has become all the more harmful today. A UNESCO report entitled ‘Learning to Be’ prepared by Edgar Faure and others in 1973 asserts that the education of children must prepare the future adult for various forms of self-learning. A viable education system of the future should consist of serving a diversity of constituents. And performance, not the period of study, should be the basis for credentials. The writing is already on the wall. In view of the fact that the significance of a commitment of lifelong learning and lifetime education is being discussed only in recent years even in educationally advanced countries, the possibility of the idea becoming an integral part of educational thinking seems to be a far cry. For, to move in that direction means such more than some simple rearrangement of the present organization of education. But a good beginning can be made by developing open university programmes for older learners of different categories and introducing extension services in the conven tional colleges and schools. Also these institutions should learn to cooperate with the numerous community organizations such as libraries, museums, municipal recreational programmes, health services etc.

1. What is the main thrust of the author?
a. There is no substitute for the extant system of education
b. Formal education is more important than nonformal
c. One should never cease to learn
d. It is impossible to meet the needs of everyone

2. Which of the following best describes the purpose of the author?
a. To criticize the present educational system
b. To strengthen the present education practices
c. To support non-conventional educational organizations
d. To present a pragmatic point of view

3. According to the passage, the present education structures assume which of the following?
a. All people can be educated as per their needs
b. Discussions on lifelong learning should continue for some more time.
c. Education is a one time process
d. Simple rearrangement of the present educational system is a must

4. What should be the major characteristic of the future educational system?
a. Different modules with same function
b. Same modules for different groups
c. Rearrangement of various course contents
d. None of these

5. According to the author, educational plan should attempt to
a. fulfill the educational needs of everyone
b. encourage conventional schools and colleges
c. decide a terminal point to education
d. overlook the people on the periphery


It is common knowledge that the root cause of our backwardness in most fields is illiteracy. Campaigns for the eradications of this drawback gathered momentum in the past four decades after independence. The result is, as excepted, dramatic. However, while the percentage of literacy in India is going up, the number of illiterates has also been increasing, which is really incredible. Thus according to the 1991 census figures, there were 503 million illiterates in the country, 30 million more than in 1981. During the same period, the percentage of literacy went up from 34 to 39 percent. There is no need of any sophisticated technique to explain the cause of this paradox, as it is obviously the result of the rapid growth of population. The rapid growth of population has outpaced whatever little progress had been achieved in literacy. F o r instance, from 1971 to 1981, literacy increased at an annual average rate of 0.7 percent, while the country’s population grew by 2.15 per cent every year. In the following decade the average rate of annual increase in literacy was 0.95 percent, whereas the population explosion is not entirely responsible for the growing number of illiterates. The apathy of most states in failing to tackle the problem of adult illiteracy is also partly to blame. Till now, they have shown little awareness of the magnitude of the problem. Moreover, follow-up measures to prevent neo-literates from relapsing into illiteracy are just as important as the initial adult literacy campaigns. In this case too, the State Education authorities are negligent. Not sufficient provision has been made for ‘continued education’. This can be done by setting up more rural libraries, adult schools and correspondence courses.

1. Which of the following appears unbelievable, according to the passage?
a. Growing illiteracy is owning to non-availability of reading facilities to rural masses.
b. Sufficient provision for continued education has not been made
c. The increase in literacy percentage and also the increase in number of illiterates
d. None of these

2. The term ‘Neo-literate’ as used in the passage refers to a person who
a. is not literate
b.has newly become literate
c. is a little literate
d. is a literate with no school education

3. In the passage, the rapid growth of population has been attributed to
a. illiteracy
b. apathy of government officials
c. want of continued education
d. All of these

4. Which of the following statements is not true in the context of the passage?
A. An effective check on population growth is the only solution for attainment of full literacy
B. The cause of the paradox mentioned in the passage can be explained by using sophisticated techniques
C. Adequate number of libraries and adult schools are not available in our country
a. Only A
b. Only B
c. Only C
d. A and B

5. Which of the following is the same in meaning as the word ‘outpaced’ as used in the passage?
a. surpassed
b. nullified
c. ruled out
d. spoiled


The forces that generate conditions conducive to crime and riots are stronger in urban communities than in rural areas. Urban living is more anonymous living. It often releases the individual from community restraints more common in tradition – oriented societies. But more freedom from constraints and control also provides greater freedom to deviate. And living in the more impersonalized, formally controlled urban society means that regulatory orders of conduct are often directed by distant bureaucrats. The police are stronger executing these prescriptions on An anonymous set of subjects. Minor offences in small town or village are often handled without resort to official action. As disputable as such action may seem to be, it results in fewer recorded violations of the law compared to the big cities. Although perhaps coursing some decision difficulties for the police in small towns, formal and objective law enforcement is not always acceptable to villagers Urban areas with mass population, greater wealth, snore commercial establishment and more product of our technology also provide more frequent opportunities for theft. Victims are impersonalized, property is insured, consumer goods in more abundance are vividly displayed and are more portable. The crime rate increases despite formal moral education given in schools

1. People live under more social control in.
a. Formally controlled urban societies
b. The presence of the police authorities
c. An anonymous form of living
d. None of these

2. Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage?
a. The display of consumer goods in the main cause of crime
b. Back of personal contact increases crimes in urban areas
c. Small communities have more mirror crimes than in urban centers
d. Urban crimes cannot be prevented

3. Which of the following is a characteristic of an urban setting?
a. Unreported minor crimes
b. No deviation from freedom
c. Less forceful social control
d. Minimal opportunities of crime due to better law enforcement

4. It can be inferred from the passage that urban crime can be controlled by
a. Greater emphasis on moral education
b. Enforcement of law by distant bureaucrats
c. Vivid display of expensive consumer goods
d. Making the expensive consumer goods less portable

5. The author’s view of ‘Traditional Societies’ is best expressed by which of the following?
a. They provide less freedom for the individual in many circumstances
b. They have lower crime rates because of the moral teachings in schools
c. They provide inadequate freedom for personal movements and travel
d. They do not have adequate modern technology

Reading Comprehension Problems

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