Indian Rock System

Rocks formed prior to the Cambrian system. The Archaean rock system includes:
Archaean Gneisses and Schists [4 Billion Years] Gneiss == Mineral composition varies from granite to gabbro.

Schists == mostly crystalline, include mica, talc, hornblende, chlorite, etc

These rocks are: Oldest rocks [pre-Cambrian era] [formed about 4 billion years ago]. Rocks formed due to solidification of mol ten magma – the earth’s surface was very hot then. Known as the ‘Basement Complex’ [They are the oldest and forms the base for new layers] Azoic or unfossiliferous, Foliated (consisting of thin sheets), Thoroughly crystalline (because they are volcanic in origin), Plutonic intrusions (volcanic rocks found deep inside)

Dharwar System [4 – 1 Billion Years]Formation period ranges from 4 billion years ago to – 1 billion years ago. Highly metamorphosed sedimentary rocksystem. [formed due to metamorphosis of sediments of Archaean gneisses and schi sts]. They are the oldest metamorphosed rocks. Found in abundance in the Dharwar district of Karnataka. Economically the most important rocks because they possess valuable minerals like high grade iron-ore, manganese, copper, lead, gold, etc.

Purana Rock System(1400–600 Million Years) Includes two divisions: the Cuddapah System and the Vindhyan System

Cuddapah SystemUnfossiliferous clay, slates, sandstones and limestones was deposited in synclinal basins [depression between two folds {Fold mountain}]. Outcrops best observed in Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. These rocks contain ores of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, etc. They contain large deposits of cement grade limestones

Vindhyan System (1300-600 million years)This system derives its name from the great Vindhyan mountains. The system comprises of ancient sedimentary rocks (4000 m thick) superimposed on the Archaean base. Mostly Unfossiliferous. Large area of this belt is covered by the Deccan trap.

The Vindhayan system have diamond bearing regions from which Panna and Golconda diamonds have been mined. It is devoid of metalliferous minerals but provides large quantities of durable sto nes, ornamental stones, limestone, pure glass making sand etc.

Dravidian Rock System (Palaeozoic) Formed about 600– 300 million years ago. Found in the Extra Peninsular region (Hima la yas and Ganga plain) and are very rare in Peninsular India. [The name ‘Dravidian’ doesn’t mean they are found in South India] Abundant fossils. The rocks of Cambrian, Ordovician, Silu rian, Devonian and Carboniferous periods are fall under Dravidian system. (All these are not important, only Carboniferous is important)

Carboniferous rocks (350 million years) The Carboniferous rocks (350 million yea rs) comprise mainly of limestone, shale and quartzite. Mount Everest is composed of Upper Carboniferous limestones . Coal formation started in the Carboniferous age. Carboniferous in geology means coal bear ing. [most of the coal found in India is not of Carboniferous period; High quality co al of Great Lakes Region-USA, U.K and Ruhr region is Carboniferous coal].

Aryan Rock SystemUpper Carboniferous to the Recent.

Gondwana System The Gondwana System [derives its name Gonds, the most primitive people of Tela ngana and Andhra Pradesh] They are deposits laid down in synclinal troughs on ancient plateau surface. As the sediments accumulated, the loaded troughs subsided. Fresh water and sediments accumulated in these trough and terrestrial plants and animals thrived. This happened since Permian period (250 million years ago).

Gondwana Coal Gondwana rocks contain nearly 98 per cent of India’s coal reserves. Gondwana coal is much younger than the Carboniferous coal and hence it’s carbon content is low. They have rich deposits of iron ore, copper, uranium and antimony also. Sandstones, slates and conglomerates are used as building materials.

Jurassic System The marine transgression in the latter part of the Jurassic gave rise to thick series of shallow water deposits in Rajasthan and in Kuch chh. Coral limestone, sandstone, conglomerates and shales occur in Kuchchh. Another transgression on the east coast of the Peninsula is found between Guntur and Rajahmundry

Deccan TrapVolcanic outburst over a vast area of the Peninsular India from the end of the Creta ceous till the beginning of the Eocene gave rise to Deccan Traps. Basaltic lava flowed out of fissures covering a vast area of about ten lakh sq km. These volcanic deposits have flat top and steep sides and therefore called ‘trap’ meaning a ‘stair’ or ‘step’ in Swedish. The process of weathering and erosion (denudation) since millions of years has reduced the Deccan Trap to almost half of its original size. Present Deccan Trap covers about 5 lakh sq km mainly in parts of Kuchchh, Saura shtra, Maharashtra, the Malwa plateau and northern Karnataka.

Thickness of the Deccan Traps is 3,000 metres along the west which is reduced to 600- 800 metres towards the south, 800 metres in Kuchchh and only 150 metres at the eastern limit. The weathering of these rocks for a long time has given birth to black cotton soil kno wn as ‘regur’. The Deccan Trap has been divided into three groups:

Tertiary System Eocene to Pliocene about 60 to 7 million years ago.  The tertiary is the most significant period in India’s geological history because the Hima layas were born and India’s present form came into being in this period.

Himalayas – Himalayan Ranges The Himalayas (young fold mountains), Indo-Gangetic Plain (monotonous topography – featureless topography), The Peninsular Plateau (one of the most stable landmasses; one of the oldest plateaus of the world), Coastal Plains (Sediments due to fluvial action). The Indian Islands [Coral Islands == coral reef built up on atolls–Lakshadweep. Tectonic ==Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Peninsular PlateauIncludes the entire south India, central In dia, Aravalis, Rajmahal hills, Megha laya plateau, Kuchchh-Kathiawar region (Guja rat) etc.. It is the oldest and the most stable landmass of India.

 HimalayasIncludes the Himalayas, Purvanchal and their extensions Arakan Yoma (Myanmar) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (but we will consider these as islands only). It is the youngest and highly unstable landmass of India. [Continent – Continent Convergence]

Tectonic movements are very common. Indo-Gangetic Plain Between Peninsular and Himalayan region. Most youthful, monotonous [lack of change or variety] region prone to tectonic forces. Coastal Plains Eastern Coastal Plains and Western Coastal Plains. Formed due to consolidation of sediments brought by rivers (fluvial deposits). Highly stable just like peninsular plateau. Indian Islands Two major groups – Lakshadweep and, Andaman and Nicobar islands. Lakshadweep [Hotspot] are group of atolls occupied by coral reefs. No significant volcanism or tectonic activity in recent past. Highly vulnerable to sea-level rise. Andaman and Nicobar islands – Con tinuation of Arakan Yoma. Has active volcanoes and is tectonically active.

Type of TopographyExtent in % Mountainous (more than 2135 m above sea level) 10.7 Hilly area (305– 2135 m above sea level) 18.6 Plateau (305 – 915 m above sea level) 27.7 per cent.

Plains 43 per cent. Division of the Himalayas Formation of Himalayas explained in Continent – Continent Convergence. Shiwaliks or outer Himalayas Lesser or Middle Himalayas The Greater Himalayas The Trans-Himalayas – Tibetan Himalayas. The Eastern Hills – Purvanchal: A chain of hills in North-East India.

Himalayan Ranges Series of several parallel or converging ranges. The ranges are separated by deep valleys creating a highly dissected topography [(of a plateau or upland) divided by a num ber of deep valleys].

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