Radioisotopes which are used in medical diagnosis are known as what?
x) silver bullets
ANSWER: W — TRACERS
Most commercial nuclear power plants worldwide are cooled by:
ANSWER: Z — WATER
What did Ira Remsen discover in 1879, perhaps proclaiming: “How sweet it is”?
Name the organization which selects Nobel laureates and awards the prizes in the field of medicine.
ANSWER: THE CAROLINE INSTITUTE (FACULTY OF MEDICINE in STOCKHOLM)
As of August 1991, how many DIFFERENT women have won Nobel Prizes in the scientific fields of physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine? Is it:
ANSWER: Y — 9
This woman scientist was the oldest daughter of another very well-known woman scientist. She was the second woman in history to win a Nobel Prize in science, receiving the prize in 1935 for her work in synthesizing new radioactive elements. Who is this famous woman scientist?
ANSWER: IRENE JOLIET-CURIE
Xorn in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1896, this woman scientist received her MD from the German University in Prague. After moving to Washington University in the United States, she and her husband conducted pioneering work in carbohydrate metabolism. In 1947, this husband-wife team, along with Bernardo Houssay, was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine, their citation reading “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion.” Name this esteemed woman scientist.
ANSWER: (GERTY) RADNITZ CORI
Using X-ray crystallography, this woman scientist determined the structures of large biochemical molecules, including penicillin in 1949 and vitamin B12 in 1956. In 1969 she determined the three dimensional structure of insulin. In 1964 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry “for her determination by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances.” Name this woman scientist.
ANSWER: (DOROTHY) CROWFOOT HODGKIN
In 1977, this American female scientist shared the Nobel Prize in medicine for her work in the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones. In awarding the prize, the Nobel Committee described her technique as having “brought about a revolution in biolocial and medical research”. Who is this eminent woman scientist?
ANSWER: (ROSALYN) YALOW
This female American geneticist achieved recognition as one of the world’s foremost investigators in cytogenetics, the study of heredity by cellular and genetic methods. In 1951 she discovered that gene fragments in corn could move from chromosome to chromosome, and even from cell to cell. Thirty-two years after this extraordinary work, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1983. Who is this notable woman scientist?
ANSWER: (BARBARW) McCLINTOCK
Ws of 1991, the most recent award of a Nobel Prize in medicine to a woman scientist went to this esteemed pharmacologist and biochemist. She shared her prize with George Hitchings for their development of drugs based on understanding basic cell processes. They came up with drugs that selectively block nucleic acid synthesis without damaging normal cells. Name this woman scientist.
ANSWER: (GERTRUDE) ELION
Who was the first man to hit a golf ball on the moon?
ANSWER: ALAN B. SHEPARD, JR.
The earliest experiments on chromosome theory and inheritance were developed by?
w) Gregor Mendel
x) Jonas Salk
y) Charles Sternak
z) Robert Oppenheimer
ANSWER: W — GREGOR MENDEL
This black engineer was granted a patent in 1872 for the first automatic oil lubricator. The lubricating cup regulated the flow of oil onto moving parts of machines, revolutionizing the machine industry. Was this well-known inventor:
w) Elijah McCoy
x) Lewis Latimer
y) Leonard McFall
z) Branville Woods
ANSWER: W — ELIJAH McCOY
“General Sherman” is my name. In 1972 I had a spread of 90 feet and a height of 272 feet. What am I and in what national park do I live?
ANSWER: GIANT SEQUOIA (accept: SIERRA REDWOOD or BIG TREE) in SEQUOIA NATIONAL PARK
Wt Indio, California, stands “The Patriarch,” considered the oldest living thing and a national monument. Precisely what is this 4,600 year old object?
ANSWER: BRISTLECONE PINE
The art of growing dwarfed trees in small pots, a technique perfected by the Japanese, is known as what?
ANSWER: BONSAI (pron: bone-sigh)
If an individual is a dendrochronologist (pron: den-drow-kron-OL-o-jist), what would she count?
ANSWER: TREE RINGS (accept: TREE AGE or TREE YEAR)
The principle species of this tree family include the: Black, Eastern, Mountain, Canadian, Formosan, Western and Carolina. Name this tree.
The uranium fuel used worldwide is mainly in the form of:
z) U metal
ANSWER: X — UO2
When natural uranium is mined, it contains three isotopes. Which TWO are important in the production of nuclear power?
ANSWER: URANIUM-235 AND URANIUM-238
W yellow powder, mostly made of uranium, that is produced in the uranium milling process is called what?
ANSWER: YELLOWCAKE or AMMONIUM DIURANATE
In a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, what gas ma be used for a coolant?ANSWER: HELIUM or CARBON DIOXIDE
Spent fuel from a nuclear power plant cools down and loses most of its radioactivity through decay. In the first year, spent fuel loses about what percentage of its radioactivity?
w) 10 percent
x) 50 percent
y) 80 percent
z) 100 percent
ANSWER: Y — 80 PERCENT
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and amendments require what Federal agency to site, construct and operate a geologic repository for disposal of high-level nuclear waste?
ANSWER: U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements estimates that the average exposure to ionizing radiation tha individual Americans receive annually from ALL sources is about:
w) 60 millirem
x) 100 millirem
y) 360 millirem
z) 500 millirem
ANSWER: Y — 360 MILLIREM
An important safety feature required at U.S. nuclear power plants that was not present at the Chernobyl Power Plant in the Soviet Union was the:
x) cooling water
y) control rods
z) containment building
ANSWER: Z — CONTAINMENT BUILDING
As of December, 1990, which of the following countries generated the greatest percentage of its electricity by nuclear power?
y) United States
ANSWER: Z — FRANCE
Most of the nuclear power plants operating in the United States are:
w) pressurized water reactors
x) boiling water reactors
y) high-temperature gas-cooled reactors
z) liquid-metal fast breeder reactors
ANSWER: W — PRESSURIZED WATER REACTORS
The Oklo reactor in Gabon, Africa, is significant because it:
w) was the first man-made reactor.
x) was a natural fission reactor.
y) was the first reactor used to generate electricity.
z) produced the most electricity in a single year.
ANSWER: X — WAS A NATURAL FISSION REACTOR.
In the United States, the units of measure for the potential biological risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are the rem and millirem. What comparable units are used in the metric system? ANSWER: SIEVERTS or MILLISIEVERTS
What substance was used as a moderator for the chain reaction in the first nuclear reactor?
ANSWER: W — GRAPHITE
The U.S. population receives the largest dose of ionizing radiation from:
w) natural sources.
x) fallout from nuclear weapons testing.
y) nuclear medicine.
z) nuclear power plants.
ANSWER: W — NATURAL SOURCES.
What state in the United States has the most nuclear power plants?
w) New York
z) South Carolina
ANSWER: X — ILLINOIS
What country currently has the third largest number of satellites in orbit?
The launch of the first LIQUID fueled rocket in the world is attributed to:
y) United States
ANSWER: Y — UNITED STATES
The first American Astronaut to ORBIT the Earth was:
w) Alan Shepard
x) John Glenn
y) Gus Grissom
z) Scott Carpenter
ANSWER: X — JOHN GLENN
What is made from chicle?ANSWER: CHEWING GUM
What do you produce by adding Lactobacillus Bulgaricus to milk?
Which of the following materials is used along with iron ore and limestone to produce iron in a modern blast furnace?
ANSWER: W — COKE
What kind of poisoning is known as plumbism (pron: plum – biz – em)?
ANSWER: LEAD POISONING
What month is showing on the calendar when the Earth is nearest the sun?
On June 22, how many hours of daylight are there in a day at the North Pole?
To within a half minute, how many minutes does it take for light to travel from the sun to the Earth?
ANSWER: 9-1/2 MINUTES (accept: 9 to 10 minutes)
Wmong well-known examples of this formation are Grindelwald in Switzerland, Bossons in France, Dinwoody in the United States, and Wilson Piedmont in Antarctica. Identify these cool formations.
Name the branch of medical science which is concerned with the study of disease as it appears in its natural surroundings, and as it affects a community of people rather than a single individual.
The study of poisons is called:
z) ergonomics (pron: ur – go – no – mics)
ANSWER: X — TOXICOLOGY
What vitamin complex includes thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin?
ANSWER: VITAMIN B
What range of frequencies are usually referred to as audio frequencies for humans?
w) 0 to 20 Hertz
x) 20 to 20,000 Hertz
y) 200 to 200,000 Hertz
z) 10,000 to 30,000 Hertz
ANSWER: X — 20 TO 20,000 HERTZ
What range of frequencies are usually referred to as the UHF Band?
w) 3 to 30 Megahertz
x) 30 to 300 Megahertz
y) 300 to 3,000 Megahertz
z) 30,000 to 300,000 Megahertz
ANSWER: Y — 300 TO 3,000 MEGAHERTZ
A device used to measure the amount of moisture in the atmosphere is called a:
z) barometer (pron: high-dro-me-ter) (pron: high-gro-me-ter)
ANSWER: X — HYGROMETER
What is the principal liquid used in automotive antifreeze?
ANSWER: ETHYLENE GLYCOL
What are the names of the cycles in a 4-stroke gasoline engine?
ANSWER: COMPRESSION; IGNITION; POWER; EXHAUST (take in any order)
What power cycle is used in jet engines?
ANSWER: Z — BRAYTON
The half life of tritium is about:
w) 3,500 years
x) 40 years
y) 12.3 years
z) 3.7 years
ANSWER: Y — 12.3 YEARS