Current Affairs

APPSC Assistant Professors Screening Test Syllabus 2018 (Anthropology)

Paper – II

Paper II will cover 180 Objective Type Questions (Multiple Choice, Matching type, True/False, Assertion – Reasoning type) carrying 180 marks of 3 hours duration. Each question carries 1 mark. There will be negative marks for wrong answers. Each wrong answer will be penalized @ 1/3rd of the marks prescribed for the question.

1. Introduction :Aim, Scope, Historical Development, Relationship with other sciences, Different branches of anthropology and their inter relatedness. Recent and Emerging trends and major developments in all branches of Anthropology ( Physical, Archaeological and Social – Cultural ). Fieldwork, Ethnography, Comparative method, Observation, Interview, Case study, Genealogical method, Schedules and questionnaires, Statistical tools of Archaeological sites and Data collection.

2. Evolution : 
Theories of Evolution : Lamarckism, Neo-Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism, Synthetic theory, Primates and Fossils : Fossil records, Earliest Primates (Aegyptopithecus, Propliopithecus, Dryopithecus, Proconsul), and living primates ( Distribution, Classification, Characteristics, Phylogeny and Taxonomy ). Comparison of morphological and anatomical features of Man and Ape Erect Posture and Bipedalism.

3. Fossils : 
Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of early Hominoids Ramapithecus; Australopithecus Africanus; Australopithecus boisei (zinjanthropus); Australopithecus robustus; Meganthropus; Homo habilis; Characteristics and phyiogenetic position of Homo erectus; Homo erectus javanensis; Homo erectus pekinensis; Homo sapiens neanderthalenis Phyiogenetic position, salient features and distribution.
➣  La Chapelle auxsaints; Rhodesian Man Classic / Conservative.
➣   Progressive-Steinheim; Ehringsdorf; Mount Carmel Evidence, distribution and characteristics of Homo sapiens.
➣   Cro-Magnon; Grimaldi; Predmost; Combe cappelle; Brunn; Chancelade; Offnet.

4. Human Genetics :
History and Development; Scope and Branches; Call structure and Division; Mendel’s Laws; Patterns of InheritanceAutosomal Dominant; Autosomal Recessive; Codominance; Sex linked; sex limited and sex controlled; Multiple alleles.
➠ Linkage and Crossing-over
➠  Lethal genes.
➠  Methods of Studying Inheritance-Twins; Sib-pair; Pedigree.
➠  Role of Heredity and Environment-Stature; Skin Colour; Intelligence.
➠  Genetics of Blood Groups.
➠  ABO System-Two-factor Hypothesis; Multiple Alleles; Rh System
➠  Living Human Populations and Human Diversity
➠  Concept of Race.
➠  Criteria for Racial Classifications : Skin, Hair and Eye colour; Stature; Eyes, Lips and Ears;
Face and Lower Jaw; Blood Groups; Dermatoglyphics.
➠  Distribution and Characteristics – Caucasoid; Negroid; Mongoloid.
➠  Racial Classifications – Deniker’s; Hooton’s; Coon, Garn and BirdselTs.
➠  Racial Classification of Indian Populations – Risley’s; Guha’s; Sarkar’s.

5. Chronology :
➸   Relative, Absolute and Cultural Geological framework.
➸    Tertiary, Quaternary-Pleistocene, Holocene.
➸    Major Climatic changes during pleistocene.
➸    Glacial and Interglacial periods.
➸   Causes of Ice Ages.
➸    Pluvial and Interpluvial Periods.
➸    Moraines, River Terraces, Loess, Sea-level Changes-Caves, Marine teasaces, Beach, ridges.
➸    Relative dating : Terrace, Stratigraphy, Palaenology, Palaecutology.
➸    Absolute dating : Radio-carbon, Potassium-argon, Thermoluminescence, Dendrochronology.
➸    Cultural Chronology-Three-age system : Stone Age, Copper / Bronze Age, Iron Age.
➸    Palaeolithic Period : Lower palaeolithic, Middle palaeolithic, Upper palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithie-Emergence of Metal Technology, Urban revolution

6. Typo – Technology and Palaeolithic Cultural Features :
Percussion technique : Primary and Secondary making
Block – on-block / anvil technique; Stone hammer technique; Cylinder hammer technique; Clactonian technique; Levallois technique; Pressure technique; Retouch; Blade and Burin technique; Flake technique; Pecking; Grinding and Polishing; Splinter and groove techniques.

Artefact Typology : Simple flake; Side flake; End flake; Levallois flake; Clactonian flake; Blade; Microlithic blade; Tortoise core / Levalloisiam; Discoid core; Mousterian flake; Prismatic core.
Tool Typology –
⇒   Pebble tools; Chopper; Chopping tool
⇒   Bifaces-Handaxe; Cleaver
⇒   Scrapers-side, end, round, concave, convex
⇒   Blade knife; Blunted back blade; Borer / Awl; Burin
⇒    Points leaf shape-Laurel Leaf; Willow Leaf
⇒    Points-Shouldered Points-Denticulate; Notch
⇒    Microliths –
⇒    Geometric Types
⇒    Non-Geometric Types
⇒    Celt-Axe; Adze
⇒    Shouldered Celt.
⇒    Shoe-last Celt
⇒    Grinding Stone
⇒    Ringstone.

Lower Palaeolithic Cultures-Type-technology, Habitat, Environment Economy, People and Distribution.
↣   Lower Palaeolithic Cultures
↣   Pebble Tool Culture
↣   Oldowan; Sohan; Choukoutien
↣   Acheulian Cultures
↣   Acheulian Cultures of Africa; Acheulian Cultures of Europe;
↣   Acheulian Cultures of India.
↣   Middle Palaeolithic Cultures
↣   Mousterian Culture / Middle Palaeolithic Europe-Habitat, Environment Economy, Social Organisation, Religion, Typo-technology.
↣   Middle Stone Age in Africa
↣   Middle Palaeolithic in India.
↣   Upper Palaeolithic Culture-Habitat, Environment Economy, Typo-technology, Social Institution, religion Europe-Perigordian Culture.
↣   Chattelperronean; Gravettian; Aurignacian Culture; Solutrean.
↣  Culture; Magdalenian Culture.
↣  Upper Palaeolithic in India Upper Palaeolithic Art.

7. Holocene Culture :
⇉   Mesolithic Cultures
⇉   Climate changes, Typo technology, Habitat, Economic activity, Socio – religious features.
⇉   Europe-Azilian Culture; Tardenoisian Culture; Maglemosian Culture; Kitchen Midden Culture;
Natufian Culture.
⇉   Indian Mesolithic
⇉   Langhnaj; Teri Sites; Birbhanpur; Bagor; Bhimbetka
⇉   Adamgarh, Sarainahar Rai, Lekhahlia, Mahadeva.
⇉   Mesolithic Art in India
⇉   Neolithic ( Early Farming Cultures )
⇉   Neolithic of the Near-east
⇉   Jericho; Jarmo; Catal Huyuk
⇉   Neolithic Cultures of Indian Subcontinent :
⇉   Northern Neolithic : Burzahom
⇉   Southern Neolithic : Brahmagiri; Sangankallu; Utnur; Telkalakota; Nagarjun Konda.
⇉   Eastern Neolithic : Daojali Hading; Sarutaru.
⇉   Central Zone (Neo-Chalcolithic) : Navdatoli; Nevasa; Inamgaon.
⇉   Indus Civilization : Extant; Characteristics; Chronology; Origin and decline, Continuity with
post-Harappan, Indus people and society.
⇉   Iron Age :
⇉   Megalithic Types : Menhir; Dolmeh / Topikal; Cist; Cairn Circle; Carcophagi

8. Evolution, Social Structure and Organisation :
Evolution : Unilinear, Universal, Multilinear
Diffusion : Neo-evolution; Innovation; Acculturation; Transculturation
Culture : Definitions and Attributes
Functionalism : Malinowski, Radcliffe-Brown
Structuralism : Levi-Strauss, Leach.

Culture and Personality : Basic personality configuration-Kardiner and Linton Enculturation; Status and Role; Patterns of Culture; Culture Change; Themes Cultural Relativism; Values; Great and Little Tradition; Civilization; Gender Theories.

Indian Contribution-Theory and Concepts : G. S. Ghurye; N. K. Bose; D. N. Majumdar; M. N. Srinivas; S. C. Dube L. P. Vidyarthi
Aspects of Culture, Organisation of Culture, Institutions
Social Organisation.

Family :
⇒  Family of Orientation and Procreation
⇒  Structure : Nuclear, Extended, Joint.
⇒  Residence : Patrilocal, Matrilocal, Neolocal, Virilocal, Uxorilocal

⇒  Rules : Endogamy, Exogamy,
⇒  Monogamy, Polygamy : Polygyny, Polyandry.
⇒  Mate selection : Cross-cousin marriage, Levirate, Sororate, Sororal
⇒  Dowry, Bride price / Bride wealth

Kinship :
⇒  Kinship Terms : Classificatory and Descriptive systems

Consanguineal and Affinal
⇒  Primary, Secondary, Tertiary
⇒  Terms of Reference and Address
⇒  Descent, Inheritance and Succession :
⇒  Patriarchal and matriarchal
⇒  Unilineal : Patrilineal, Double
⇒  Groups : Tribe, Clan, Phratry, Lineage
⇒  Kinship behaviour and relationship; Avoidance and Joking relationship, Incest.

9. Economic and Political Organisation : Religion and Magic
Economic Organisation :
↣   Concept of Property
↣   Primitive Communism.
↣   States of Economy : Collection, Hunting, Fishing, Pastoralism, Cultivation, Shifting and
↣   Subsistence Economy and Market Economy.
↣   Barter
↣   Means of Production
↣   Division of Labour

Political Organisation :
↣   Panchayat – traditional and statutory.
↣   Leadership-clan and tribe.
↣   Kingship and Chiefdom in tribal communities.
↣   Customary Law
↣   Judicial System
↣   Crime and Punishment in Primitive Society.

Religion and Magic :
↣    Primitive Religion : Animism, Totemism, Ancestor Propitiation, Shaman, Priest, Medicine
↣   Tribal Mythology : Origin of universe, Tribe and Clan, Tribal deities.
↣   Magic : Black, White, Preventive, Defensive, Destructive, Imitative, Sympathetic, Witchcraft,
↣   Symbolism and Rituals.
↣    Supernatural powers-Mana, Taboo.

10. Indian Anthropology : Basic Concepts and Issues 
Basic Concepts :
➠  Indian Village as part society, as an isolate.
➠  Caste as a group and system.
➠  Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe.
➠  Tribe, Caste, Varna and Caste / Jati.
➠  Notified and Denotified Groups.
➠  Other Backward classes and castes

Sanskritisation, Westernisation, Modernisation
Sacred complex in India
Regionalism and Ethnicity.

Basic Issues :
➠  New Panchayati Raj
➠  Gram Sabha
➠  Women in new Panchayats.
➠  Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Casts Major tribal groups

Tribal states in India.
Tribal Movements for Autonomy, Development Schemes

Tribal Rehabilitation; Democracy and Caste Bonded Labour and Child Labour; Ashram Schools; Mandal Commission; Dhebar Commission; Emerging Spiritual Leaders (Gurus) in India; Caste among non-Hindus.

About the author



Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!