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Himalayas Passes through which States in India – Indian Geography

Forest Wealth 
The Himalayan host rich coniferous and evergreen forests. Lower levels have tropical evergreen forests and higher levels have Alpine vegetation (Coni ferous). The Himalayan forests provide fuel wood and a large variety of timber for industries. Himalayan forests host wide variety of medicinal plants. Several patches are covered with gra ss offering rich pastures for grazing animals.

Due to rugged and sloped terrain, the Himalayas are not potential agricultural sites. Some slopes are terraced for cultivation. Rice is the main crop on the terraced slopes. The other crops are wheat, maize, potatoes, etc. Tea is a unique crop which can be gro wn only on the Shiwalik hill slopes in the region. Fruit cultivation is a major occupation. A wide variety of fruits such as apples, pears, grapes, mulberry, walnut, cherries, peaches, apricot, etc. are also grown in the Himalayan region.

Himalayan ranges have a large number of tourist spots. The hilly areas in the Himalayas are not affected by hot winds like loo. Hence they offer cool and comfortable climate. The increasing popularity of winter sports has increased the rush of tourists in winters. Srinagar, Dalhousie, Dharamshala, Chamba, Shimla, Kulu, Manali, Mu ss oorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, Dar jeeling, Mirik, Gangtok, etc. are impor tant tourist centres in the Himalayas.

Cultural Tourism 
Himalayas host many Hindu and Bu ddist shrines. Kailas, Amarnath, Badrinath, Kedar nath, Vaishnu Devi, Jwalaji, Uttarka shi, Gangotri, Yamunotri, etc. are impo rtant places of pilgrimage

Mineral Resources in Himalayas 
Geosynclinical deposits in tertiary rocks are regions of potential coal and oil reserves. Coal is found in Kashmir, Copper, le ad, zinc, gold, silver, limestone, semiprecious and precious stones occur at some places in the Hima layas. But the exploitation of these resources require advanced technologies which are not yet available. Also, disturbing such a fragile environment leads to more pain than gain (present hydroelectric power projects have already proved this).

Mountain Passes – India & Himalayas 
Major Passes– India, Himalayas, Indian Sub-continent — Khyber pass, Gomal pass, Bolan pass, Banihal Pass, Pensi La, Zoji La, Bara Lacha La, Rohtang Pass, Shipki La, Nathu La, Jelep La, Bom Di La, Dihang Pass, Pal Ghat, Bhor Ghat etc. and Major Passes of the Himalayas.

Major Passes in India and Indian Subcontinent 
Mountain Passes in India Major Passes in India and Indian Sub-continent Major Passes in India – North East Major Passes in India – Western Ghats

Major Passes of the HimalayasMost of the passes remain closed in winter (Nov – Apr) due to heavy snow fall.

Passes of the Western Himalayas 
Jammu and Kashmir
Mintaka Pass
Kashmir and China
Trijunction of India-China and Afghanistan border

Parpik Pass
Kashmir and China
East of Mintaka pass on the IndoChina

Khunjerab Pass
Kashmir and China
Indo-China border

Aghil PassLadakh region of India with the Xinji ang (Sinkiang) Province of China 5000 m above sea level.  north of K2 Peak (the highest peak in India and the second highest peak in the world)

Banihal Pass Jammu and Srinigar 2832 m across the Pir-Panjal Range remains snow covered during winter season
The road from Jammu to Srinagar transversed Banihal Pass until 1956 when Jawahar Tunnel was constructed under the pass. The road now pa sses through the tunnel and the Bani hal Pass is no longer used for road transport. Another 11 km long tunnel provides railway link between Banihal and Kazigund. It was thrown open to railway transport in July, 2013

Chang-La Ladakh with Tibet altitude of 5360 m This has a temple dedicated to Cha ng-La Baba after whom the temple has been named

Khardung Lanear Leh in the Ladakh range 5602 m The world’s highest motorable road passes through this pass remains closed in winter due to heavy snowfall

Lanak LaIndia and China (Akasai-Chin area of Jammu and Kashmir) this pass provides passage between Ladak and Lhasa. A road to connect Xinjiang Province with Tibet has been constructed by the Chinese

Pir-Panjal passacross the Pir Panjal range provides the shortest and the easiest metal road between Jammu and Kashmir Valley. But this route had to be closed down as a result of partition of the sub continent

Qara Tag LaIndo-China borer across the Kara koram Range located at an elevation of over six thousand metres

Imis La Ladakh region of India and Tibet in China

Pensi La vital link between the Kashmir Valley and Kargil remains closed to traffic from Novem ber to mid-May due to heavy snowfall

Zoji La important road link between Srinagar on one side and Kargil and Leh on the other side The road passing through this pass has been designated at the National Highway (NH-1D) Border Road Organisation (BRO) is responsible for maintaining the road and cleaning it off snow during winter. In spite of all these efforts, the road through this pass remains closed from December to mid-May

Himachal Pradesh Bara Lacha LaHimachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir Elevation: 4,890 m National highway connecting Mandi in Himachal Pradesh with Leh in Jammu and Kashmir passes through this pass. Being situated at high altitude, it remains snow covered in winter and is not used as a transport route.

Debsa Pass link between Kullu and Spiti districts elevation of 5270 m above sea level It offers a much easier and shorter alte rnative route to traditional Pin-Parbati Pass route between Kullu and Spiti

Rohtang Passroad link between Kullu, Lahul and Spiti Valleys Elevation: 3979 m Border Road Organisation (BRO) is responsible for constructing and main taining roads in this area. Rohtang pass is a great tourist attraction and traffic jams are very common because this route is widely used by military, public and private vehicles.

Shipki La
Himachal Pradesh and Tibet
Elevation: 6000 m
Remains closed in winter season (Nov– Apr)

Uttarakhand Lipu Lekh is trijunction of Uttarakhand (India), Tibet (China) and Nepal borders This pass is used by pilgrims to Kai lash-Mansarowar.

Mana PassUttarakhand with Tibet elevation of 5610 Situated a little north of the holy place of Badhrinath Remains closed in winter season (Nov – Apr)

Mangsha Dhura Uttarakhand with Tibet. It is used by pil grims going to Kailash-Mansarowar.

Niti Pass Uttarakhand with Tibet. Remains closed in winter season (Nov – Apr)

Muling LaUttarakhand and Tibet situated in the north of Gangotri at an elevation of 5669 m in the Great Himalayas

Passes of the Eastern Himalayas Sikkim Nathu La joins Sikkim with Tibet altitude of 4310 m it forms part of an offshoot of the an cient Silk Route an important trade route between India and China It was closed after the Chinese aggre ssion on India in 1962 but was re opened in 2006 as the governments of the two countries decided to enhance their trade through land routes

Jelep LaSikkim-Bhutan border altitude of 4538 m passes through Chumbi Valley important link between Sikkim and Lhasa

Arunachal Pradesh Bom Di La Arunachal Pradesh with Bhutan altitude of 4331 m Situated at an altitude of 4331 m near the western boundary of Bhutan in the Greater Himalayas, this pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa

Dihang Pass Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. elevation of more than 4000 m it provides passage

Yonggyap PassArunachal Pradesh with Tibet

Dipher Pass trijunction of India, China and Myanmar easy access between Arunachal Pradesh and Mandalay in Myanmar. It is an important land trade route bet ween India and Myanmar and remains open throughout the year

Kumjawng Pass
Arunachal Pradesh with Myanmar

Hpungan Pass
Arunachal Pradesh with Myanmar

Chankan Pass
Arunachal Pradesh with Myanmar

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