Current Affairs

Science & Technology Notes for APPSC Panchayat Secretary

Biotech & Medical Breakthroughs
Tissue Engineering ..Tissue engineering is a field that applies the principles and methods of bio engineering and life sciences that will restore. maintain, and improve tissue. Current approaches of tissue engineering are undergoing on organ transplantation on much emphasis on the application of stem cells.
Gene Editing: Gene editing is a tool for the CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Inter spaced Short Palindromic Repeats) which are the segment of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Genome editing techniques were concurrent with other approaches over the years to manipulate gene function, including homologous recombination and RNA interference. 
Cancer Spit Test: Forget biopsies a device designed by researchers at the University of California-Los Angeles detects oral cancer from a single drop of saliva.
Smart Contact Lens .Contact lenses developed at the University of California Davis contain conductive wires that continuously monitor pressure and fluid now within the eyes of at-risk people. The lenses then relay information to a small device worn by the patient; the device wirelessly transmits it to a computer,
Speech Restorer: For people who have lost the ability to talk, a new “phonetic speech engine” from Illinois-based Ambient Corporation provides an audible voice. Developed in collaboration with Texas Instruments, the Audio uses electrodes to detect neuronal signals travelling from brain to vocal cords.
Absorbable Heart Stent: The bio-absorbable version made by Abbott Laboratories in Illinois does its job and disappears. After six months the stent begins to dissolve, and after two years it’s completely gone, leaving behind a healthy artery.

Stem cell treatments Stem cell has been used to at treat  range of diseases, injuries and other health related conditions. The widely used stem cell treatment is the transplantation of blood stem eelis used totrest disease and immune system..
Nano medicines. Nano medicine is one of the Applications of nanotechnology which is used for diagnosing. treating, and preventing diseases Nano medicine shoes, the promising use in disease diagnosis, drug delivery on a targeted site in the body and molecular imaging
Nanosensors: Today detection of biological an chemical species is the centre of area in the field of health care. Nano sensors are any biological,  chemical or surgical sensory points used to convey information about nano particles to the macroscopic world.
Biosensors Biosensor is a device detection of biological component with a physio chemical detector component, can convert later biological data to electrical signal which can be  used to detect enzymes, receptors antibodies and microbial cell
Artificial brain: Artificial brain is a collection of   interconnected neural net module which is evolved in a special electronic hardware downloaded into PC and interconnected according to the design of human brain.
Artificial intelligence: It is the field of in which we study computers and computer soft wares can be created that are capable of intelligent behaviour. Bio-printing: 3D bio-printing  is  the process of   creating  spatially  controlled cell patterns in which the behaviour of biological tissues can be reproduced.

Physicists compressed quantum data: If today’s classical computers could not compress the information we’re constantly sending back and forth, then your Internet connection would have been infinitely slower

The nuclear fusion reaction that produced more
energy than it used up:
Scientists at Lawrence Livermore’s National Ignition Facility CNIF) brought us one step closer to the cleaner, more economical power of nuclear fusion by finally making more energy than they used to start the fusion reaction. They compressed a small amount of fuel enough to induce nuclear fusion and they extracted more energy from the fuel than they put in
Robot for testing the lifetime of human-machine
: Keypads and touchscreens make a wide range of different devices easy and intuitive to operate. However, the material is subject to especially high loading through constant use and, at some point, becomes impaired in its functionality. A robot system developed by Fraunhofer IPA now allows device manufacturers to realistically simulate such loading
in order to determine how durable their devicesare.
Polythene In 1933 a method for making the plastic was discovered by chemists at, the now defunct chemical company, LCI. ICI tumed this serendspitous discovery into a practical method for producing the common plastic that’s almost certainly within easy reach of you now.
The Haber Bosch process in 1910, German chemists Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch combined atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen into ammonia This turn can be used as crop fertiliser, eventually filtering up the food chain to us.
Penicillin: Alexander Fleming generally gets the credit for penicillin when, in 1928, he observed how a mould growing on his petri dishes suppressed the growth of nearby bacteria. Full-scale production of Penicillin started in 1944 by Margaret Hutchinson Rousseau who converted it into a full-scale production plant.
Artificial gravity: It is the increase or decrease of apparent gravity (g-force) by artificial means, particularly in space as well as on Earth.
Hyper Telescope: Hyper-telescope is a set of telescopes, arranged in a large lens-shape, working together to resolve astronomical images at much higher angular resolutions than possible with each telescope alone.
Geo-stationary satellite: A geostationary satellite is an earth-orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of approximately 3 kms (22,300 miles) directly over the equator, that revolves in the same direction the earth rotates (west to east),
Polar orbit: It is an orbit in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Sun) on each revolution.
Space shuttle The primary vehicle for research and exploration is the space shuttle. The space shuttle takes off like a rocket, orbits the earth like a spacecraft and lands, like an aeroplane. It consists of an orbiter, an external tank and two solid rocket boosters.
Artificial Satellites An artificial satellite is a manufactured ‘moon’. It circles the earth in space along, a path called an orbit. An artificial satellite may be designed in almost any space. It does not have to be streamlined, because there is little or no air where it travels in space. Artificial satellite maybe classified according to the jobs they do as: weather satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, scientific satellites and military satellites.
Space Probes: Space probes are used to explore space at various distances from the earth. Four main kinds of probes are 
(i)  Sounding rockets It carry instruments into the upper atmosphere and into space near the earth.
(ii) Lunar Spacecraft It explores the moon to prepare the way for astronauts to land there.
(iii) Interplanetary Probes It explore space between the planets. They do not reach a specific body in space.

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