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Project Method of Teaching Principles Advantages , Disadvantages and Limitations

Principles Advantages , Disadvantages and Limitations

The direct method was also called as Natural method or Reformed method. It was introduced as are action to the demerits of translation method. In this method, the learner was expected to learn the new language in a natural manner like his mother tongue. Websters New International. Dictionary has given a comprehension definition of the Direct Me According to it, “Direct Method is a method of teaching a foreign language, especially a modern language through conversation, discussion and reading in the language itself without use of the pupils language, without translation and without the study of formal grammar. The First words are taught by pointing to objects or picture or by performing actions”.
According to H. Champion, “To teach direct directly to  or immediate association between experience and expression between the English word, phrase or idiom and meaning
Principles of the Direct Method:
1. Oral Practice: The Direct Method lays emphasis on oral teaching. Thorough drilling is given to the pupils for listening imitating and speaking. In this way, the learner picks up fluency in speech and also correct pronunciation
2. The Unit of speech is a sentence not a word: In the direct method emphasis is laid on speaking full sentence and the teacher presents every sentence with the help of appropriate situations. Thus the pupils are carried through experience and expression simultaneously
3. Inhibition of mother tongue: As far as possible mother tongue is not used while teaching English. The language should be associated with its meaning directly, without the assistance of mother tongue.

4. Inductive teaching of grammar: In the Direct Method emphasisis laid on functional grammar and not on theoretical grammar. Hence grammar is taught indirectly and inductively

5. Progressive teaching of new vocabulary: New vocabulary is taught after careful selection and gradation. The words and phrases are taught at definite stages through spoken language. Thus teaching of vocabulary is progressive. New words are taught by pointing to objects or pictures explanations or use in suitable context.

1. The Method is Psychologically sound: It follows the main principles of education Viz., “Proceed from particular to general, proceed from concrete to the abstract and practice must precede theory”. Also, the unit of teaching is not a word but a sentence not the part but

2. It is a Natural Method: In the direct method, the order of teaching is listening, speaking, reading and writing. This is the natural order of learning a language. This method makes use of demonstration and conversation.

3. It begetsnuency of speech:A lot of attention is paid to oral training in this method. The students acquire fluency of speech. Direct association between word and meaning tends to improve expression of speech.

4. It aids written work: Fluency ofspeech leads to ease in writing. If a student can express himself clearly in speaking, he can express himself
in writing as well.

5. It facilitates thinking in English: The inhibition of mother tongue creates a direct bond between idea and expression. The pupils mind goes straight from meaning to the English word and from the English word to its meaning. The real progress is made when the child thinks in a language i e., when he directly associates in his mind the English word and its meaning.

6. It makes use of Audio Visual Aids: It’s technique requires alertness and activity on the part of both teacher and the taught. The use of objects, pictures and models, other illustrations, activities, demonstrations. T.V Radio, Computer etc., makes the lesson more interesting and real.

7. It facilitate the Study of Literature: it imparts a feeling for language. It aims at the practical command of English at lower state but at the higher stage it aims to develop a critical study and thus facilitates the study of literature.
8. It bridges the gap between active and the passive knowledge.

Limitations of this Method:
1. Direct Method lays too much emphasis on speaking. It neglects reading and writing. The tendency is to give insufficient attention to reading and not to teach writing systematically.
2. It aims at the active command of language. This makes its learning more difficult. Dr. Berton says, that “only the clever child can profit by this method”.
3. This method demands specially qualified teachers. Every teacher cannot make a success of the Direct Method. Only that teacher can work on this method successfully who is good at English
4. This method reduces the importance oflove for mother tongue in the heart tof the Indian pupils.

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