What is Morphology? Important Questions and Answers

What is Morphology?
The term morphology is generally attributed to the German poet, novelist,  playwright, and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832),  who coined it early in the nineteenth century in a biological context. Its  etymology is Greek: morph- means ‘shape, form’, and morphology is the  study of form or forms. In biology morphology refers to the study of the form and structure of organisms, and in geology it refers to the study of  the configuration and evolution of land forms. In linguistics morphology  refers to the mental system involved in word formation or to the branch of linguistics that deals with words, their internal structure, and how  they are formed.

1. The endocrine structure and the corresponding hormones are listed in the  table below. Match the columns and  select the correct option.
Column I Column II
(a) Hypothalamus (p) Relaxin
(b) Anterior Pituitary (q) Estrogen
(c) Testis (r) FSH and LH
(d) Ovary (s) Androgens
(t) Gonadotropin releasing hormone
A. (a) – (t), (b) – (r), (c) – (s), (d) – (q)
B. (a) – (t), (b) – (r), (c) – (q), (d) – (s)
C. (a) – (p), (b) – (q), (c) – (s), (d) – (r)
D. (a) – (r), (b) – (t), (c) – (s), (d) – (q)

2. The Leydig cells as found in the human  body are the secretory source of
A) Glucagon
B) Androgens
C) Progesterone
D) Intestinal mucus

3. Signals for parturition originate from
A) Placenta only
B) Fully developed foetus only
C) Both placenta as well as fully developed foetus
D) Oxytocin released from maternal pituitary

4. Which one of the following statement is false in respect of viability of mammalian sperm?
A) Viability of sperm is determined by its motility
B) Sperms must be concentrated in a thick suspension
C) Sperm is viable for only up to 24 hours
D) Survival of sperm depends on the pH of the medium and is more active in alkaline medium

5. Hormones and their functions are listed  in the table below. Match the columns and select the correct option.
Column I Column II
(a) Oxytocin (p) Stimulates ovulation
(b) Prolactin (q) Implantation and maintenance of pregnancy
(c) LH (r) Lactation after child birth
(d) Progesterone (s) Uterine contraction during labour
A) (a) – (s), (b) – (r), (c) – (p), (d) – (q)
B) (a) – (t), (b) – (p), (c) – (s), (d) – (r)
C) (a) – (s), (b) – (q), (c) – (r), (d) – (t)
D) (a) – (t), (b) – (r), (c) – (p), (d) – (s)

6. Parts of the sperm and their descriptions are listed in the table below. Match the columns and select the correct option.
Column I Column II
(a) Acrosome (i) contains mitochondria producing energy for the sperm
(b) Head (ii) whip-like movements to propel the sperm
(c) Midpiece (iii) contains the chromosomes
(d) Tail (iv) contains the enzymes for assisting fertilization
A) (a) – (i), (b) – (ii), (c) – (iv), (d) – (iii)
B) (a) – (iv), (b) – (iii), (c) – (i), (d) – (ii)
C) (a) – (iii), (b) – (i), (c) – (ii), (d) – (iv)
D) (a) – (ii), (b) – (iv), (c) – (iii), (d) – (i)

7. Which one of the following statements is correct?
A) FSH and LH occur in both males and females
B) FSH and LH stimulate the follicle to secrete estrogen.
C) The ovarian cycle depends on the blood levels of FSH and LH.
D) All of these are correct.

8. Short-lived immunity acquired from mother to foetus across placenta or through mother’s milk to the infant is categorized as
A) Cellular immunity
B) Passive immunity
C) Active immunity
D) Innate non-specific immunity

9. About which day in a normal human menstrual cycle does rapid secretion of LH (Popularly called LH-surge) normally occurs?
I) 5th day
II) 11th day
III) 14th day
 IV) 20th day
Choose the correct code
A) Only 1
C) Only III

10. Which of the following structures are derivatives of the endoderm?
A) Skin and nerve cord
B) Alimentary canal and respiratory structures
C) Muscles and blood
D) Excretory and reproductive structures

11. Human seminal plasma, the fluid part of semen, is produced by contributions from the
i. Urethra
ii. Prostate
iii. Seminal vesicle
iv. Bulbo urethral gland
A) i and iii
B) i and iv
C) i, iii and iv
D) ii, iii and iv

12. Which one of the following statement is correct?
A) Spermatogenesis is the formation of sperm cells.
B) Spermatogenesis occurs in the seminiferous tubules.
C) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis.
D) All of these are correct

13. Which one of the following statements is incorrect about menopause?
A) Generally occurs between the ages of 45 and 55
B) Causes the cessation of the female reproductive cycle
C) Anterior pituitary no longer produces FSH and LH
D) Ovaries slowly reduce their secretion of estrogen

14. Foetal ejection reflex in human female is induced by
A) Differentiation of mammary glands
B) Pressure exerted by amniotic fluid
C) Release of oxytocin from pituitary
D) Fully developed foetus and placenta

15. Correct sequence of embryo development
A) Gamete–> Zygote–> Morula– >Blastula–> Gastrula
B) Gamete –> Zygote–> Blastula–> Morula –> Gastrula
C) Gamete–> Neurula –> Gastrula
D) Gamete –> Neurula–> Morula

16. The correct sequence of spermatogenetic stages leading to the formation of sperms in a mature human testis is
A) Spermatogonia- spermatidspermatocyte-sperms
B) Spermatocyte- spermatogoniaspermatid-sperms
C) Spermatogonia- spermatocytespermatid-sperms
D) Spermatid- spermatocytespermatogonia-sperms

17. The haemoglobin of a human foetus
A) Has a higher affinity for oxygen than that of an adult
B) Has a lower affinity for oxygen than that of the adult
C) Its affinity for oxygen is the same as that of an adult
D) Has only two protein subunits instead of four

18. Match the Column I with Column II
Column I Column II
A) Parturition p Attachment of zygote to endometrium
B) Gestation q Release of egg from Graafian follicle
C) Ovulation r Delivery of baby from uterus
D) Implantation s Duration between pregnancy and birth
E) Conception t Formation of zygote by fusion of the egg and sperm
A) A = q, B = s, C = p, D = t, E = r
B) A = s, B = r, C = p, D = t, E = q
C) A = t, B = p, C = q, D = r, E = s
D) A = r, B = s, C = q, D = p, E = t

19. Given below is a diagrammatic sketch of a portion of human male reproductive system. Select the correct set of the names of the parts labelled A, B, C, D. A B C D
(1) Ureter Seminal vesicle Prostate Bulb -ourethral gland
(2) Ureter Prostate Seminal vesicleBulbourethral gland
(3) Vas deferens Seminal vesicle ProstateBulbourethral gland
(4) Vas deferens Seminal vesicleBulbourethral gland Prostate
A) Option (1)
B) Option (2)
C) Option (3)
D) Option (4)

20. At the time of implantation, the human embryo is called
I) Zygote
II) Blastocyst
III) Embryo
IV) Foetus
Choose the correct code
A) Only 1
B) Only II
C) Only III

21. Sertoli cells are nourishing cells in the testis. They also secrete a hormone. Identify the same.
A) Inhibin
B) Gonadotropin
C) Testosterone
D) Relaxin

22. The type of connective tissue that is associated with the Umbilical cord is 
A) Adipose connective tissue
B) Jelly-like connective tissue
C) Areolar connective tissue
D) Reticular connective tissue

23. Which of the following are secretions produced by the spermatozoa at the time of fertilization?
A) Fertilizin and sperm lysin
B) Anti-fertilizin and sperm lysin
C) Fertilizin and anti-fertilizin
D) only sperm lysine

24. Which one of the followings causes the mammary glands to enlarge at puberty?
A) Testosterone
B) Progesterone
C) Estrogen
D) Oxytocin

25. What is the inner lining of the uterus called?
I) Cervix
II) Oviduct
III) Endometrium
IV) Fimbriae
Select the correct answer
A) Only 1
B) Only II
C) Only III
D) I, II, III, & IV

26. Where does fertilization usually take place?
1) Cervix
2) Vagina
3) Uterus
4) Oviduct
Select the right answer
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Only 4
D) All the above

27. The process of sperm production takes place in the
A) Epididymis
B) Vas deferens
C) Prostate glands
D) Seminiferous tubules

28. Which one of the followings secretes the gonadotropic hormones?
A) Adrenal
B) Anterior pituitary
C) Posterior pituitary
D) Thyroid

29. Which one of the followings is incorrectly matched regarding female reproductive organs?
A) Ovaries – eggs and sex hormones are produced
B) Oviducts – serves as the site of fertilization
C) Uterus – Serves as the birth canal
D) Cervix – Contains opening to embryo/fetus

30. Which one of the followings is incorrectly matched regarding male reproductive organs?
A) Testes: Sperm and sex hormones are produced
B) Epididymis: Ducts where sperm mature
C) Prostate gland: Contributes fluid to semen
D) Urethra: Contributes nutrients and mucuscontaining fluid to semen

31. Where do the female gonads (paired ovaries) lie?
1) Pelvic cavity
2) Thoracic cavity
3) Abdominal cavity
4) Scrotal sacs
Select the right answer
A) Only 1
B) Only 2
C) Only 4
D) All the above

32. A cross section at the midpoint of middle piece of human sperm will show
A) Centriole, mitochondria and 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules
B) Centriole and mitochondria
C) Mitochondria and 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules
D) 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules only

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