Biology

Application of Bioremediation on Solid Waste Management

Bioremediation  is  an alternative way to  manage or  to  degrade the  waste.  It  is  eco-friendly and much cost effective as compared to other traditional  technique  such as incineration.  The main purpose of this paper is to pay more attention towards bioremediation.  This paper outlines the different processes of bioremediation,  their limitation and the process to  remove different heavy metals, and other waste which  is harmful to  human beings. When metals are treated with microbes  it get accumulated  or attached  on microbial  membrane. And after that it can be extract from microbes through cell fragmentation.

Introduction
Biosparging; ‘Earth’ is rich wealth of natural resources such as land, forests, wildlife, soil, air, water, wind, animals and plants. The race begins when humans started living a stable life rather than a nomadic life. But due to civilization the use and over use, and misuse has led to depletion of various natural resources to an extent that today half of our natural resources are either depleted or at the edge of depletion. And due to civilization, urbanization and industrialization large number of wastes is generated which is dumped into the environment annually. Approximately 6×106  chemical compounds have been synthesized, with 1,000 new chemicals being synthesized annually. Almost 60,000 to 95,000 chemicals are in commercial use. According to third world network reports, more than one billion pounds (450 million kilograms) of toxins are released globally  in air and water. The contaminants causing ecological problems leading to imbalance in nature is of global concern. At the international level the researchers of the world are trying to overcome on the depletion of natural resources by several means, however very little attention is given to their words and continues  to use them  without caring  the adverse consequences. The dumping  of hazardous waste into  the environment like rubber, plastics,  agricultural waste, and industrial waste is harmful to living creature. Solid-waste management is a major challenge in urban areas throughout  the  world.  Without  an effective  and efficient  solid-waste management program, the waste generated from various human activities,  can  result  in  health  hazards  and have  a  negative  impact  on  the environment. Continuously and uncontrolled discharge of industrial and urban wastes into the environmental sink has become an issue of major global concern . The industrial and anthropogenic activities had also led to the contamination of agricultural lands which results the loss of biodiversity. Although the use of pesticides, herbicides increases the productivity of crop but also increase the contamination in the soil, water and air . Bioremediationis not only a process of removing the pollutant from the environment but also it an eco-friendly and more effective process. The pollutants can be removes or detoxify from the soil and water by the use of microorganism, known as bioremediation . The purpose of bioremediation is to make environment free from pollution with help of environmental friendly microbes. Bioremediation broadly can be divided in two category i.e In-situ bioremediation and ex-situ bioremediation.
This study reviewed the salient features of methods of bioremediation,  its  limitations and  recent  developments in  solid  waste management through bioremediation. In situ bioremediation provide the treatment at contaminated sites and avoiding excavation and transport of contaminants, means there is no need to excavate the water or contaminated soil for remediation. There is a biological treatment of cleaning the hazardous substances on the surface. Here the use of oxygen and nutrient to the contaminated site  in  the  form  of aqueous  solution  in  which  bacteria grow and  help to degrade the organic matter. It can be used for soil and groundwater. Generally, this technique includes conditions such as the infiltration of water containing nutrients and oxygen or other electron acceptors for groundwater treatment. Most often, in situ bioremediation is applied to the degradation of contaminants in saturated soils and groundwater. It  is a  superior method to  cleaning  contaminated environments since it is cheaper and uses harmless microbial organisms to degrade the chemicals. Chemotaxis is important to the study of in-situ bioremediation because microbial organisms with chemotactic abilities can move into an area containing contaminants. So by enhancing the cells’ chemotactic abilities, in-situ bioremediation will become a safer method  in  degrading  harmful  compounds.  This  in-situ  bioremediation further sub divided into following category.

Bioventing   ::  It is a technique to degrade any aerobically degradable compound. In bioventing the oxygen and nutrient like nitrogen and phosphorus is injected to the contaminated site. The distribution of these nutrient and oxygen in soil is dependent on soil texture. In bioventing enough oxygen  is  provided  through low  air  flow  rate  for  microbes.  Bioventing is nothing but it is pumping of air into contaminated soil above the water table through well which sucked the air. Bioventing is more effective if the water table is deep from the surface and the area having
high  temperature.  It  is  mainly  used  for  the  removal  of  gasoline,  oil, petroleum etc. The rate removal of these substances is varied from one site to another site. This is just because of the difference in soil texture and different composition of hydrocarbons (Figure 1 and Table 1).

Biosparging  ::  In biosparging air is injected below the ground water under pressure  to  increase  the  concentration  of  oxygen.  The  oxygen  is  injected for microbial degradation of pollutant. Biosparging increase the aerobic degradation  and  volatilization.  There  must  be  control  of  pressure while injecting the oxygen at the contaminated site to prevent the transfer of volatile matter into the atmosphere. In it the cost can be reduce by reducing the the diameter of injection point. Before injecting the  oxygen  there  should  know about soil  texture and  permeability.  This technology was applied to a known source of gasoline contamination in order to quantify the extent of remediation achieved in terms of both mass removed and reduction in mass discharge into groundwater. Biosparging is effective in reducing petroleum products at underground storage tank (UST) sites. Biosparging is most often used at sites with mid-weight petroleum products (e.g., diesel fuel, jet fuel); lighter petroleum products (e.g., gasoline) tend to volatilize readily and to be removed more rapidly using air sparging. Heavier products (e.g., lubricating oils) generally take longer  to biodegrade than the lighter products,  but  biosparging  can  still  be  used  at  these  sites.  Even  after  that there are some disadvantages is also
Bioagumentation  : Bioagumentation to support design consideration Microorganisms having specific metabolic capability are introduced to the contaminated site for enhancing the degradation of waste. At sites where soil and groundwater are contaminated with chlorinated ethenes,  such as tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene, bioaugmentation is used to ensure that the  in situ  microorganisms can completely degrade these contaminants to ethylene and chloride, which are non-toxic. Monitoring of this system is difficult (Figure 2).
Ex-Situ Bioremediation ::   The treatments are not given at site. In ex situ, the contaminated soil excavate and to treat it at another place. This can be further sub divided into following categories

Biopiling ::  It  is  a  hybrid  form  of  composting  and  land  farming.  The  basic biopile system includes a treatment bed, an aeration system, an irrigation/nutrient system and a leach ate collection system. For proper degradation there should be control of moisture, heat, nutrients, oxygen, and pH. The irrigation system is buried under the soil and provides air  and nutrient through vacuum. To prevent the run off the soil is covered with plastic and due to which evaporation and volatilization is also prevented and promote the solar heating. Biopile treatment takes 20 to 3 month to complete the procedure

Landforming ::   In land forming make a sandwich layer of excavated soil between a clean soil and a clay and concrete. The clean soil at bottom and concrete layer should be the upper most layers. After this allow it for natural degradation. In it also provide oxygen, nutrition and moisture and pH should  also  maintain  near  the  pH  7  by  using  lime.  Land  forming  is useful mainly for pesticides.
Compositing   ::  Compositing is a process in which microorganism degrades the waste at elevated temperature that is ranges from 55- 65. During the process of degradation microbes release heat and increase the temperature which leads to the more solubility of waste and higher metabolic activity in composts. In  windrow  composting  remove  the  rocks  and  other  larger  particles from  excavated contaminated  soil.  The  soil  is  transported  to  a composting pad with a temporary structure to provide containment and  protection  from  weather  extremes.  Amendments  (straw,  alfalfa, manure, agricultural wastes and wood chips) are used for bulking agents and as a supplemental carbon source. Soil and amendments are layered into long piles known as windrows (Table 2). Wastes are two type i.e. inorganic waste and organic waste. The inorganic waste includes mainly heavy metals and organic waste includes agricultural waste, plastics, rubbers etc.
Bioremediation of Heavy Metals T he atomic weight and density of heavy metal is high as compare to other element. There is more than 20 heavy metals, only few of them such as Cadmium (Cd), Cupper (Cu), Argon (Ar), Silver (Ag), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Uranium (Ur), Ra, Nickel (Ni)  etc.  is  considered, due  to  their  toxicity.  The  contaminations  of soil through heavy metals become a major problem among all other environmental problems. These heavy metals contaminate not only the soil but also ground water through leaching. The removal of heavy metal is very important due to their potential of entering into the food chain causing adverse effect to human beings which accumulate into  the body.  These  metals  can also be  removed  by the  use of  various biological agents  like yeast,  fungi, bacteria, and algae etc.  which act  as bio  sorbent  for sequestering the  metals.  It  can sequester  dissolved  metal ions  out  of  dilute  complex  solutions  very  quickly  and  which  is  more effective and efficient. Hence it is an ideal candidate for the treatment of high volume and low concentration complex wastewaters. The property of microorganism to accumulate/sequester the metal is first of all observed with toxicological point of view.  Biosorption is nothing but it is a reaction between the positive charged heavy metals and negative charged microbial cell membrane, in which metals are then transported to cell cytoplasm through cell membrane with the aid of transporter proteins and get bio accumulated. Biosorption of metal ions strongly depends on pH. The biosorption of Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb by p. chrysogenum was inhibited below pH 3.0. It was observed that biosorption of Cd by various fungal species is at very sensitive pH (Table 3).
It has been observed that Cd2+  Cr6+  and  Zn2+  removal activity ranged between 85% and 60%, with intracellular accumulation as predominant mechanisms in most of the cases.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa  and  Aspergillus nigerare the species which remove almost every toxic heavy metal (Figure 4).
Bioremediation of Rubber Waste  :: In solid waste, about 12% constitute of rubber. A rubber can neither degrade easily nor recycled due to its physical composition.  Tire is composed of synthetic polymers and high grade of black carbon is also there. The reason behind this black carbon is to increase the strength of that rubberor tire. A major environmental problem arises due to rubber, because on burning it gives a large number of toxic fumes along with carbon monoxide. Even after that the use of rubber is increasing day by day, of which maximum rubber comes from vehicles i.e. 65%.  Its toxic chemical composition like zinc oxides inhibit the growth of sulfur oxidizing and other naturally occurring bacteria, which leads slow natural degradation of rubber.  So for degradation of rubber first of all remove the toxic component of rubber through fungi like Recinicium bicolour. After that this rubber can be devulcanized by sulfur reducing or oxidizing bacteria like Pyrococcus furiosus & Thiobacillus ferroxidans. These devulcanized rubbers can be recycled. The calorific value of rubber is same as coal that is of about 3.3 x 104 KJ/kg. So control combustion of rubber can be a best waste management and the heat can be use for energy generation
Bioremediation of Agricultural Waste  ::    Each year, human, livestock, and crops produce approximately 38 billion metric tons of organic waste worldwide. Disposal and environmental friendly management of these wastes has become a global priority.
Therefore, much attention has been paid in recent years to develop low-input and efficient technologies to convert such nutrientrich organic wastes into value-added products for sustainable land practices. However these can be managed through vermicomposting. A  vermicomposting  is nothing  but  a joint action between  the  earth warms and microorganism. Here microorganism helps in degradation of organic matter and earth warm drives the process and conditioning to the substrate and altering the biological activity.  Several epigeic earthworms, e.g.,  Eisenia  fetida  (Savigny),  Perionyx excavatus  (Perrier),  Perionyx sansibaricus  (Perrier),  and  Eudrilus eugeniae  have been identified as detritus feeder and can be used potentially to minimize the anthropogenic waste from different source.  Whereas  agricultural  by  products  like  animal  dung,  crop  residue etc. are good source of nutrient for the plants. In India, according to  conservative  estimation  approximately  600 to  700  million  tons of agricultural waste is  available. This  huge quantity of  waste can be converted to boifertilizer by vermicomposting. Vermicomposting often results in mass reduction, shorter time for processing, and high levels  of  humus  with  reduced  phytotoxicity  in  ready  material. A  variety  of  combinations  of  crop  residues  and  cattle  manure  were used in vermicomposting trials to obtain a value-added product, i.e., vermicomposting, at the end, the higher concentrations of plant nutrients in end products indicate a potential for using agriculture wastes in sustainable crop production.

Degradation of Xenobiotic Compounds.
Xenobiotics are organic in nature and many of the xenobiotic compounds  released  into  the  environment  and  accumu late  because they are only degraded very slowly and in some cases so slowly as to render them effectively permanent (Figure 5).

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Mallikarjuna

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