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Write a Essay – Computer and Internet Today


Information Techonology, or IT as it is commonly referred to, is a branch of engineering. It involves the use of computers and software to manage information. Information technology deals with the storage, retrieval, transmission, and manipulation of data.
The term ‘information techonology’ is used not only with reference to computers and computer networks, but also for other technologies that are used to distribute information such as telephones, televisions, and tele- communication equipment in general You may think that information techonology, is a new technology but the fact is that Man has been sharing information for thousands of years. The pre-mechanical phase was from 3000 BC to 1450 AD. During this period,.human beings communicated and shared information first.through simple drawings, and later, through writing.

Writing began as just marks on wetclay, but with the invention of paper, what was written could be stored, and passed on more easily. When numbers were created, people wanted ways to add, subtract, and work with them. This led to the invention of the first simple calculator, the abacus.

Mechanical age of Information Technology: The mechanical phase of information technology was the period between 1450 and 1840. During this period, many new technologies were developed. These included the slide rule, and a mechanical computer invented by Blaise Pascal.
An inventor named Charles Babbage designed two machines that were able to do mathematical calculations One of them, the analytical engine had many elements similar to the modern digital computers. In fact, many machines were invented during the mechanical age of IT, but generally speaking, most of them were huge and unwieldy, and capable of doing only one task at a time.

Electromechanical age of IT :The period between 1840 and 1940 is known as the electromechanical age of IT. because it witnessed the discovery of ways to harness electricity. This was an important step forward, because knowledge and information could now be converted into electrical impulses This period saw the beginnings of telecommunications with the invention of the telegraph, Morse code, telephone, and radio. One of the exciting advances made during this period was the Atanasoff Berry Computer, the first electronic digital computing device, conceived by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in 1937.

Parts of a computer ::  A computer is really a system of many parts working together. The system unit is the core of a computer system. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit, called the CPU, or microprocessor. It acts as the ‘brain’ of your computer. Another component is random access memory or RAM, which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses, while the computer is on. Your computer also has a mouse which is a small device used to point to, and select items on your computer screen. A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Then there is a monitor which displays information in visual form, using text and graphics.

To connect your computer to the internet, you need that sends and receives a modem. A modem is a device that send and received computer an over a telephone line, or high speed cable.

Microchips ::  A microchip is a set of interconnected electronic such as transistors and that are etched or imprinted on a tiny chip This chip is made af a emiconducting material, such as silicon or germanium Earlier, these individual electronic components were set and linked on a circuit board. As technology advanced, circuits became smaller and smaller The first microchip invented is edited jointly to Robert Noyce and jack Kilby in 1958, The microchip is at the heart of many electronic appliances known today

Use of Personal Computer ::  A personal computer or PC is a relatively small, inexpensive computer that is designed for use by one person at a time. Personal computers first appeared in the late 1970’s, one of the first and most popular personal computers was the Apple ll, introduced 1977, Today, PCs can desktop PCs, laptops, or tablets users have access  to a wide range of commercial and free software which easily installed HA fact, now more than 10,000 application programs are available for use on personal computers. They include word processing programs, and communication programs Word processing programs are used to type, correct, rearrange or delete text in letters, memos reports, and schools assignments Database programs allow a computer to store amounts of data in a systematic Way, Communication programs connect a personal computer  to other computer .

Compact Disc (CD)   ::  CDs or compact discs are optical
pact  used store digital data. During their manufacture discs  this disc is with bumps, single, continuous, extremely long spiral track. The bumps store the data in a coded form. The surface of a CD is reflective because the disc is coated with a thin ayer of aluminum. The shiny metal layer reflects the laser that is used to read or write the device. A layer of lacquer is then spin-coated onto the CD to protect the metal. Since nothing touches the encoded portion, the CD is not worn out during use, which makes them very useful for stroing information

What is Modem
A modem is a device that lets you connect your computer to a standard telephone line or cable so that you can transmit, and receive electronically transmitted data. It is the key that unlocks the world of the internet and its World Wide Wed. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily, and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. The modem converts a computer’s digital signals into specific frequencies to travel over telephone or cable television lines. At the destination the receiving modem demodulates the frequencies back into digital data

What is networking?
when a group of computers are linked together so that they can share information and resources, it is called computer networking. The computers are connected by cables, and each network has a hub where all the cables on the network come together. Networking makes it possible to share files or peripherals, such as a printer. For example, when the computers in an office a networked, files and printers can be shared by everyone. To network you need a gateway or is the different computers to be connected. The internet an excellent example of networking.

What is the Internet
The Internet is the largest computer network in the world. It links millions of smaller networks which are connected to each other by phone lines, cables, or wireless connections. All of these computers in this vast network share a language the language of the Internet. Not all computers are connected to the Internet. If your computer is connected to the Internet, it can help you to get information from other computers, send messages to a friend who lives far away, or do lots of other amazing things like hear a song, or see a famous painting. This is possible because when you log on to the internet, you are given access to the other computers that are also connected.

The Internet belongs to everyone, and no single government or organization controls it. Rather, it is made up of many individual networks that are owned by different individuals and organizations. There are, however, several major players who have a key role in ensuring that the smoothly. There is which co-ordinates domain names, while the Internet society acts as a house for technical standards, and the World Wide Web Consortium plots the web’s future. Software are controlled by corporations such as Microsoft.

Internet different from the Web :: The Internet is massive network of networks that connects millions of computers together globally. In this network any computer can communicate any other computer, as long as they are both connected to the Internet. The web, on the other hand, is like a bunch of ages” of information connected to each other around the globe. What makes web pages interesting is that they contain hyperlinks. Each link points to another web page Another characteristic of the web is that you can search it These invisible connections between pages are like the threads of a spider’s web, hence the name World Wide Web.

Web browser: Every time you go online, visit websites browse different web pages, or go to your favorite portal, you use a web browser. Web browsers are basically software programs that allow you to search for, and view various inds of information on the web, such as web sites, video and audio. The browser gets in contact with the web server, and requests for information. The web server receives the information, and displays it on the computer A web browser is important because it allows anyone to browse the web, by simply pointing and clicking, bypassing the need to know commands used in software languages. The parts of a browser include the status bar address bar, title bar, tool bar, display window, and scroll bar. The most popular web browsers today are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, opera, Google Chrome etc. To sum up, web browsers have helped shape the Internet as we know it today, making web browsing a very pleasant experience.

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