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Constitutional Reforms in British India | Polity Question Bank for SSC, IBPS, APPSC and ALL

Constitutional Reforms in British India

Regulating Act, 1773:
End of Dual govt.
Governor of Bengal to be theGovernor–General of British territories of India.
Establishment of Supreme Court in Calcutta.
Court of directors to be elected for 4 years
Number of Directors fixed at 24, 1/4th retiring every year.
In Bengal, collegiate govt was created with Governor General and 4 members of the council and were named in the act:-GG->Warren Hastings and 4 members-> PhilipFrancis, Clavering, Monson, and Barwell.

Amending Act of 1781:
Actions of public servants of the Company in their official capacity were exempted from the jurisdiction of Supreme Court.
Jurisdiction of Supreme Court was defined. SC had to take into consideration and respect the religious and social customs and usages of the Indian while enforcing its decrees and processes.
The rules and regulations made by GG -in -Council were not to be registered with SC.

Pitts Act of 1784:
Introduced Dual System of Govt by the company and by a Parliamentary board of directors.
gave the British Government a measure of control over the company’s affairs
company became a subordinate department of the State.
Reduced the number of members of executive Council of the GG to three.

Act of 1786:
Governor General given the power to over -ride the Council and was made the Commander-in-chief also to prevail upon Cornawal is to accept the GG -ship of India

Charter Act of 1793:
Company given monopoly of trade for 20more years.
laid the foundation of govt. by written laws,interpreted by courts.

Charter Act of 1813:
Company deprived of its trade monopoly in India except in tea and trade with China.
An amount of one lakh rupees was set aside for the promotion of Education in India.

Charter Act of 1833:
End of Company’s monopoly even in tea and trade with China.
Company was asked to close its business at the earliest.
Governor General of Bengal to be Governor General of India
(1st Governor General of India was LordvWilliam Bentinck).

Charter Act of 1853:
The Act renewed the powers of the Company and allowed it to retain the possession of Indian territories in trust of the British crown.
Recruitment to Civil Services was based on open annual competition examination(excluding Indians).

Government of India Act, 1858:
Rule of Company in India ended and that of the Crown began.
A post of Secretary of State(a member of the British cabinet) for India created.
He was to exercise the powers of the Crown.
Secretary of State governed India through the Governor General.
Governor General received the title of Viceroy. He represented Secretary of State and was assisted by an Executive Council,which consisted of high officials of the Govt.
The system of double govt introduced by Pitt‘s Act 1784 was finally abolished

Indian Council Act, 1861:
The Executive Council was now to be called Central Legislative Council.
The Governor General was conferred power to promulgate ordinance.

Indian Council Act, 1892:
Indians found their way in the Provincial Legislative Councils.
Element of Election was introduced.

Indian Council Act, 1909 or Minto-Morley Reforms:
Itenvisaged a separate electorate forMuslims.

Government of India Act, 1935:
Provided for the establishment of All- India Federation consisting of
British Provinces
Princely States.
The joining of Princely States was voluntary and as a result the federation did not come into existence as the minimum number of princes required to join the federation did not give their assent to join the federation.
Dyarchy was introduced at the Centre (e.g.Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General).Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in provinces. They were granted separate legal identity.
Burma (now Myanmar) separated from India.

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